I created an SFTP-only user on Linux.


--You can only operate under the document root. --The document root is / var / www / html.

--Login with password authentication. --Ssh is not available.

Create user

useradd sftp-user
passwd sftp-user
usermod -d / sftp-user
usermod -g apache sftp-user
chown sftp-user:apache /home/sftp-user

Point: Set the owning group to apache and set permission 775 to prevent apache permission error.

SFTP settings

vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config


#PasswordAuthentication no //Comment out
#Subsystem sftp  /usr/libexec/openssh/sftp-server //Comment out
Subsystem sftp internal-sftp 
Match User sftp-user
ChrootDirectory /var/www/sftp
ForceCommand internal-sftp -u 0002 
PasswordAuthentication yes  
Parameters Description
Match Specify the condition range by specifying user or group
ChrootDirectory Directory path to chroot
ForceCommand Forced command setting
PasswordAuthentication Whether to perform password authentication

Note: When sftp-user uploads a file by doing ForceCommand internal-sftp -u 0002 The group is authorized. If it is not set, it will be 755, but after setting it will be 775. (Allows writing by apache by granting permissions to the group.)

Reboot after correction.

systemctl restart sshd

Directory creation

Directory structure

The first thing to keep in mind is the permissions of the directory you specify for chroot

root: must have root permissions 755

about it.

Due to this restriction, the directory structure is as follows.

var  └ www ├ Document root └ Directory specified as chroot └ Directory for delegating authority (mounting document root)

Change document root permissions
chown sftp-user:apache /var/www/html/
chmod 775 /var/www/html/
Create a directory to chroot
mkdir /var/www/sftp
chown root:root /var/www/sftp/
chmod 755 /var/www/sftp/
Create a directory to transfer permissions
mkdir /var/www/sftp/sftp-user
chown sftp-user:apache /var/www/html/sftp-user
chmod 775 /var/www/html/sftp-user

If you do not create a directory for transferring permissions and place the document root directly under chroot, only the root user can operate it.

Mount the document root

mount -B /var/www/html /var/www/sftp/sftp-user
option Description
B Any directory can be mounted under another directory

Files and directories similar to the document root will be added under / var / www / sftp / sftp-user /. After uploading the files, they will be added to each other.

Server reboot measures

If you restart, it will be unmounted, so set it.

vim /etc/fstab

add to

/var/www/html /var/www/sftp/sftp-user          none    bind            0 0

An article that carefully describes fstab is here

that's all. Create an SFTP user if you don't want to be on the server.

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