A memorandum of commands, packages, terms, etc. used in linux (updated from time to time)

Even if I look it up, it's troublesome to forget it and repeat it, so I will describe it here. I'm afraid to just copy and paste, so I'm aiming for a soft understanding of what I'm doing.

apt Eliminates the design mistake of ʻapt-get` described later. Recommended command.

apt-get (I will use apt from now on)

Operation and management of packages. A command line tool that operates and manages packages using the APT (Advanced Package Tool) library, which is a Debian-based package management system.

apt-get install Install the specified package.

$ apt-get install curl ca-certificates gnupg

You can specify multiple packages at the same time.

apt-get update Used to resynchronize packages. Do not install the new version, but update the package list for upgrading the packages that need to be upgraded and the new packages that just arrived in the repository. The index of the package is obtained from the location described in /etc/apt/sources.list. Always run ʻupdate before doing ʻupgrade or dist-upgrade.

apt-key Used to manage the list of keys that apt uses to authenticate packages. A package authenticated with this key can be considered reliable. When you get the package from other than Ubuntu official, you need to get the key information to authenticate with this command.

apt-key add filename

Add a new key to the list of trusted keys. If the file name is -, it will be read from the standard input.

$curl key URL| apt-key add -

If so, does it mean that curl receives the file at the URL destination and ʻapt-key add -` reads the file with the left key?

ca-certificates It is a package and provides a basic CA certificate. If you try to use the npm install or curl commands for HTTPS communication without this installed, you will get a CA certificate error. It is usually installed as a recommended package when you install the curl package.

curl A command line tool for sending and receiving files using URL syntax. The result of cURL, a project that provides libraries and command line tools for transferring data using various protocols.

deb Example

$ deb URL(Repository destination to download the package) buster main

deb is not a command. It is easy to be misunderstood like a command, but it is for entering the URL of the data acquisition source in sources.list according to the format. buster is the development code name of Debian 10, which is described because the distribution must be described after the URL of the data acquisition source. main consists of DFSG compliant packages that operate independently of software outside this area. These are the only packages that are considered part of the Debian distribution.

finger username

A command that displays information about users in the system. If you specify user name @ host name or host name, you can also check the user information in the specified host. Recently, it is often unavailable from the viewpoint of security.

gnugp A wealth of front-end applications and libraries are available with command line tools. Data and communications can be encrypted and signed. It has a versatile key management system, along with access modules for all types of public key directories.

passwd Change password. You can optionally lock the user and determine the number of valid days.

Change the password of the currently logged in user

 $ passwd 

Change the password of a user specified by someone other than root

 $sudo passwd username

psql PostgreSQL terminal front end. You can make inquiries interactively and issue it to PostgreSQL to check the results.

sh I'm not sure. Run the shell? Adding -c means that the existing file will not be overwritten by the redirect.

sources.list APT data acquisition source settings list.

su Temporarily changed to another user. ʻExit` to return to the original user.

yum Package management for CentOS and Fedora.


A form in which Linux is distributed.

For example.

Standard input

A data input source that is used as standard when a program running on a computer does not specify anything.

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