[LINUX] Using X11 with ubuntu18.04 (C)

X11 library installation

sudo apt update
(sudo apt upgrade)
sudo apt install libx11-dev
#include <X11/Xlib.h>             //Includes required for Xlib
#include <X11/Xutil.h>

Check the placement of the required libraries for Xlib. Check the placement of header files and shared libraries.

sudo find /usr -type f -name Xlib.h
sudo find /usr -type f -name libX11.so

Commands with other compile options

gcc -o xlib_test xlib_test.c -O2 -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu -lX11 -lm

A test program that only displays a black window http://cms.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~naoki/CIPINTRO/XLIB/xlib2.html I tried the program on the above site as it is.

// reference URL
// http://cms.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~naoki/CIPINTRO/XLIB/xlib2.html

#include <X11/Xlib.h>             //Includes required for Xlib
#include <X11/Xutil.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main( void )
    Display* dis;                       //Display pointer
    Window   win;                       //Window  ID
    XSetWindowAttributes att;           //Window attribute variables
    XEvent ev;                          //Event capture variable

    dis = XOpenDisplay( NULL );         //Connection with Xserver
    win = XCreateSimpleWindow( dis, RootWindow(dis,0), 100, 100,
        256, 256, 3, WhitePixel(dis,0), BlackPixel(dis,0) );  //Window generation

    att.backing_store = WhenMapped;     //Set to save the picture
    XChangeWindowAttributes( dis, win, CWBackingStore, &att );

    XMapWindow( dis, win );             //Window display
    XFlush( dis );                      //Forced sending of request
    XSelectInput( dis, win, ExposureMask );
    do{                                 //Loop waiting for the window to open
        XNextEvent( dis, &ev);
    }while( ev.type != Expose ); //Repeat here until the Expose event arrives

    //If you come this far, you should see a black window.

    getchar();  //Wait until the return key is pressed.

    XDestroyWindow( dis, win );         //Erase the window
    XCloseDisplay( dis );               //Disconnection from Xserver

    return 0;

Make compilation easier by creating a Makefile.

CC	= gcc
CFLAGS	= -O2 -I/usr/include
LIBS	= -L/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu -lX11 -lm
TARGET	= xlib_test
SRC	= xlib_test.c

	$(CC) -o $@ $^ $(CFLAGS) $(LIBS)

	rm $(TARGET)

$ @ Is the target file. $ ^ is the file that specifies the material.

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