[Python] How to use two types of type ()


When I'm reading the code around Django's Manager at work I found an unfamiliar usage of type ().

Click here for the GitHub link (https://github.com/django/django/blob/master/django/db/models/manager.py#L100-L108)

def from_queryset(cls, queryset_class, class_name=None):
    if class_name is None:
        class_name = '%sFrom%s' % (cls.__name__, queryset_class.__name__)
    return type(class_name, (cls,), {
        '_queryset_class': queryset_class,

Three arguments are passed to type ... ??? what's this?

When I looked it up, it was properly written in the Documentation of the Python standard library. (That's right)

It's almost like a quote, but I'll briefly summarize it.


__type () behaves differently depending on the number of arguments. __

1. (Probably) common usage

If there is only one argument, returns the type of object. The return value is a type object, which is typically the same object returned by object.__ class__. (Quoted from Python documentation)

>>> class Bar:
...     pass

>>> class Foo(Bar):
...     pass

Prepare a class Bar and a class Foo that inherits it.

At this time, the behavior of type () is as follows.

>>> foo = Foo()
>>> type(foo)
<class '__main__.Foo'>

>>> type(foo) is Foo

>>> type(foo) is Bar

In some cases, use it properly with ʻis instance ()`.

That was a story I knew.

2. How to use it

class type(name, bases, dict)

If there are three arguments, it returns a new type object. It's essentially a dynamic form of class statement. (Quoted from Python documentation)

The documentation states that the following two statements create the same type object.

>>> class X:
...     a = 1

>>> X = type('X', (object,), dict(a=1))

First argument: Name of class to generate Second argument: Inheriting class Third argument: Object attributes

It has become.

I will actually try it.

>>> class Bar:
...     a=1
...     def print_hogefuga(self):
...         print('hogefuga')

>>> Foo = type('Foo', (Bar,), dict(b=2))

>>> foo = Foo()
>>> foo.print_hogefuga()
>>> foo.a
>>> foo.b

In this way, we were able to create a FooClass that inherits from BarClass.


That's all about how to use type (), which I didn't know about.

There seems to be many surprising uses other than type ().

Reference / citation

-Type function, isinstance function to get / judge type in Python --It explains the commonly used type () and ʻis instance ()`. --Python built-in function documentation / # type ――It was interesting because there were many things I had never used. It's a good opportunity, so I'll review it.

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